Tribolium castaneum – the red flour beetle

The Tribolium beetle work is based at UEA where we have established a number of replicate lines that are being tested for the consequences of sexual selection, inbreeding and thermal stress and adaptation.



Experimental evolution of sexual selection

Sexual selection was Darwin’s second great idea, explaining the evolution of a fascinating array of sights, sounds and smells that help in the struggle to reproduce – sometimes at the expense of survival.


What have we found?
Godwin et al. (2017). Experimental evolution reveals that sperm competition selects for longer, more costly spermEvolution Letters, 1,  102-113.

Theory predicts males should invest in high sperm numbers to win post-copulatory competition against rivals but what if there are other ways to win at sperm competition?

Males from experimentally evolved male-biased regimes gain a significantly greater share of paternity when in competition with a rival (Figure A), and have significantly longer sperm (Figure B). Males on a restricted diet produce significantly shorter sperm (Figure C), demonstrating the cost of sperm production.

Read more on the UEA CEEC blog: Sperm Size Matters 




Lumley et al. (2015). Sexual selection protects against extinction.nature-fig-1
Nature 522, 470–473. 

Almost all multicellular species reproduce using sex, but its existence isn’t easy to explain because sex carries big burdens, the most obvious of which is that only half of your offspring – daughters – will actually produce offspring. Why should any species waste all that effort on sons?

Our research shows that competition among males for reproduction provides a really important benefit, because it improves the genetic health of populations. Sexual selection achieves this by acting as a filter to remove harmful genetic mutations, helping populations to flourish and avoid extinction in the long-term.


The Conversation logo

For a short overview of this work see this article from
The Conversation, ‘Why men are not biologically useless after all…’.

Michalcyzk et al. (2010). Experimental evolution exposes female and male responses to sexual selection and conflict in Tribolium castaneum. Evolution 65,




Evolution of polyandry


Michalcyzk et al. (2011). Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity. Sciencescience-2011

Why do so many females of so many species mate with multiple males, when we know that there are costs to females of polyandry, and that a single male can usually provide a female with full fertility?

Using inbred populations we compared individual female reproductive success (= the number of surviving offspring produced) in these with outbred controls, depending on whether they mated with one or five different males.

We found was that there were no benefits to females of promiscuity in normal, outbred populations. However, within inbred populations, females that mated with 5 different males had about 50% higher reproductive success than females who mated with just one male. Because inbred and outbred males have identical fertility, the result tells us that females in inbred populations used promiscuity to either avoid fertilisation by genetically incompatible sperm, or promote fertilisation by more compatible sperm.



Thermal sensitivity of male fertility

Negative effects of heat stress on male fertility are well established in warm blooded animals (homeotherms). However, very few studies have investigated heat stress effects on male fertility in organisms that can not regulate their body temperature (poikilotherms), despite many experiencing range shifts / extinctions due to climate change.

What are the physiological mechanisms involved? What is the impact on population viability? Can populations adapt?