Tribolium castaneum – Red Flour Beetle
The Tribolium beetle work is based at UEA, and we have established a number of replicated lines that are now being tested for the evolution of reproductive isolation, the dynamics of sexual conflict, the consequences of sexual selection and inbreeding, and testing for genetic rescue via mating pattern.
Experimental Evolution of Sexual Selection
Sexual selection was Darwin’s second great idea, explaining the evolution of a fascinating array of sights, sounds and smells that help in the struggle to reproduce – sometimes at the expense of survival.
What have we found?
Godwin et al. (2017). Experimental evolution reveals that sperm competition selects for longer, more costly sperm. Evolution Letters, 1, 102-113.
Males from male-biased regimes gain a significantly greater share of paternity in competition with a rival
and have significantly longer sperm.
Lumley et al. (2015). Sexual selection protects against extinction. Nature 522, 470–473.
Almost all multicellular species reproduce using sex, but its existence isn’t easy to explain because sex carries big burdens, the most obvious of which is that only half of your offspring – daughters – will actually produce offspring. Why should any species waste all that effort on sons?
Our research shows that competition among males for reproduction provides a really important benefit, because it improves the genetic health of populations. Sexual selection achieves this by acting as a filter to remove harmful genetic mutations, helping populations to flourish and avoid extinction in the long-term.
For a simple overview of this work see this article from
The Conversation, ‘Why men are not biologically useless after all…’.
Michalcyzk et al. (2011). Inbreeding promotes female promiscuity. Science
Why do so many females of so many species mate with multiple males, when we know that there are costs to females of polyandry, and that a single male can usually provide a female with full fertility?
Using inbred populations we compared individual female reproductive success (= the number of surviving offspring produced) in these with outbred controls, depending on whether they mated with one or five different males.
We found was that there were no benefits to females of promiscuity in normal, outbred populations. However, within inbred populations, females that mated with 5 different males had about 50% higher reproductive success than females who mated with just one male. Because inbred and outbred males have identical fertility, the result tells us that females in inbred populations used promiscuity to either avoid fertilisation by genetically incompatible sperm, or promote fertilisation by more compatible sperm.
Thermal Sensitivity of Male Fertility
Negative effects of heat stress on male fertility are well established in warm blooded animals (homeotherms). However, very few studies have investigated heat stress effects on male fertility in organisms that can not regulate their body temperature (poikilotherms), despite many experiencing range shifts / extinctions due to climate change.
What are the physiological mechanisms involved? What is the impact on population viability? Can populations adapt?